## Syllabus

**UNIT 1:**

Radiation

Potential function and the Electromagnetic field, potential functions for Sinusoidal Oscillations, retarded
potential, the Alternating current element (or oscillating Electric Dipole), Power radiated by a current
element, Application to short antennas, Assumed current distribution, Radiation from a Quarter wavemonopole or Half wave dipole, sine and cosine integral, Electromagnetic field close to an antenna,
Solution of the potential equations, Far-field Approximation.

**UNIT 2**:

Antenna Fundamentals

Introduction, network theorems, directional properties of dipole antennas, travelling –wave antennas and
effect of feed on standing-wave antennas, two –element array, horizontal patterns in broad-cast arrays,
linear arrays, multiplication of patterns ,effect of earth on vertical patterns, Binomial array, antenna gain,
effective area.

**UNIT 3**:

Types of antennas

Babinet’s principles and complementary antenna, horn antenna, parabolic reflector antenna, slot antenna,
log periodic antenna, loop antenna, helical antenna, biconical antenna, folded dipole antenna, Yagi-Uda
antenna, lens antenna, turnstile antenna. Long wire antenna: resonant and travelling wave antennas for
different wave lengths, V-antenna, rhombic antenna, beverage antenna, microstrip antenna.

**UNIT 4**:

Antenna array synthesis

Introduction, retarded potentials, array structures, weighting functions, linear array analysis, different
forms of linear arrays, Schelknoff unit circle, linear array synthesis, sum and difference patterns, DolphChebychev synthesis of sum pattern, Taylor synthesis of sum patterns, Bayliss synthesis of difference
patterns, planar arrays, arrays with rectangular boundary.

**UNIT 5**:

Propagation of radio waves

Fundamentals of electromagnetic waves, effects of the environment, modes of propagation.
Ground wave propagation- Introduction, plane earth reflection, space wave and surface wave, transition
between surface and space wave, tilt of wave front due to ground losses.
Space wave propagation- Introduction, field strength relation, effects of imperfect earth, curvature of earth
and interference zone, shadowing effect of hills and buildings, absorption by atmospheric phenomena,
variation of field strength with height, super refraction, scattering, tropospheric propagation, fading, path
loss calculations.
Sky wave propagation- Introduction, structural details of the ionosphere, wave propagation mechanism,
refraction and reflection of sky waves by ionosphere, ray path, critical frequency, MUF, LUF, OF, virtual
height, skip distance, relation between MUF and skip distance.

## NOTES

**Unit 1****Unit 2****Unit 3****Unit 4****Unit 5**

## Books Recommended

1. Jordan and Balmain: Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating System, PHI Learning.

2. Krauss: Antennas and wave propagation, TMH.

3. Balanis: Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.

4. Harish and Sachidananda: Antennas and wave propagation, Oxford University Press.

5. Raju: Antennas and Wave Propagation, Pearson Education.

6. Kennedy: Electronic Communication Systems, TMH.

## List of Experiments:

1. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of an Omni Directional Antenna.

2. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Directional Antenna.

3. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Parabolic Reflector Antenna.

4. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Log Periodic Antenna.

5. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Patch Antenna.

6. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Dipole/ Folded Dipole Antenna.

7. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Yagi (3-EL/4EL) Antenna.

8. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Monopole/ WHIP/ Collinear Antenna.

9. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Broad site Antenna.

10. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Square Loop Antenna.

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