notes For RGPV Bhopal CBCS CBGS Students

  • Optical Communication (EC-7003)

     RGPV notes CBGS

    Syllabus

    UNIT 1:
    Overview of Optical Fiber Communications (OFC): Motivation, optical spectral bands, key elements of optical fiber systems.
    Optical fibers: basic optical laws and definitions, optical fiber modes and configurations, mode theory for circular waveguides, single mode fibers, graded-index fiber structure, fiber materials, photonic crystal fibers, fiber fabrication, fiber optic cables.

    UNIT 2:
    Optical sources: Light emitting diodes (LED): structures, materials, quantum efficiency, LED power, modulation of an LED. Laser diodes: modes, threshold conditions, laser diode rate equations, external quantum efficiency, resonant frequencies, structure and radiation patterns, single mode lasers, modulation of laser diodes.
    Power launching and coupling: source to fiber power launching, fiber to fiber joints, LED coupling to single mode fibers, fiber splicing, optical fiber connectors.

    UNIT 3:
    Photo detectors: pin photo detector, avalanche photodiodes, photo detector noise, detector response time, avalanche multiplication noise.
    Signal degradation in optical fibers: Attenuation: units, absorption, scattering losses, bending losses, core and cladding losses. Signal distortion in fibers: overview of distortion origins, modal delay, factors contributing to delay, group delay, material dispersion, waveguide dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion. Characteristics of single mode fibers: refractive index profiles, cutoff wavelength, dispersion calculations, mode field diameter, bending loss calculation. Specialty fibers.

    UNIT 4:
    Optical receivers: fundamental receiver operation, digital receiver performance, eye diagrams, coherent detection: homodyne and heterodyne, burst mode receiver, analog receivers.
    Digital links: point to point links, link power budget, rise time budget, power penalties.
    Analog links: overview of analog links, carrier to noise ratio, multi channel transmission techniques.

    UNIT 5:
    Optical technologies
    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) concepts: operational principles of WDM, passive optical star coupler, isolators, circulators, active optical components: MEMS technology, variable optical attenuators, tunable optical filters, dynamic gain equalizers, polarization controller, chromatic dispersion compensators.
    Optical amplifiers: basic applications and types of optical amplifiers, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA): amplification mechanism, architecture, power conversion efficiency and gain. Amplifier noise, optical SNR, system applications.
    Performance Measurement and monitoring: measurement standards, basic test equipment, optical power measurements, optical fiber characterization, eye diagram tests, optical time-domain reflectometer, optical performance monitoring.


    NOTES


    References

    1. Keiser: Optical Fiber Communications, TMH.
    2. Senior: Optical Fiber Communication- Principles and Practices, Pearson Education.
    3. Agarwal: Fiber Optic Communication Systems, Wiley India.
    4. Palais: Fiber Optics Communications, Pearson Education.
    5. Satish Kumar: Fundamentals of optical Communications, PHI Learning.
    6. Khare: Fiber Optics and Optoelectronics, Oxford University Press.
    7. Ghatak and Thyagrajan: Fiber Optics and Lasers, Macmillan India Ltd.
    8. Gupta: Optoelectronic Devices and Systems, PHI Learning.
    9. Sterling: Introduction to Fiber Optics, Cengage Learning.


    List of Experiments

    1. Launching of light into the optical fiber and calculate the numerical aperture and V-number.
    2. Observing Holograms and their study.
    3. Measurement of attenuation loss in an optical fiber.
    4. Diffraction using gratings.
    5. Construction of Michelson interferometer.
    6. Setting up a fiber optic analog link and study of PAM.
    7. Setting up a fiber optic digital link and study of TDM and Manchester coding.
    8. Measurement of various misalignment losses in an optical fiber.


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